文件管理的新五大趨勢 (5 trends are reshaping records management)

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2013/11/05

【編整●劉育君】
圖書資訊人員的專業在於進行有組織性的知識收集,並提供所屬母機構系統性及有價值的服務。文件管理專業人員 (Record Management Professionals) 雖然所處單位不同於圖書館,但與技術資訊架構與其在母機構所扮演之嵌入式服務之角色聯繫密切。隨著資訊科技不斷的演變,文件管理專業人員所面對的文件不僅僅限於傳統的紙本文件,範圍擴大於企業內部的視聽資料、會議影音、社群媒體等相關訊息,數位資源的成長讓文件管理專員面臨到文件記錄周期的縮短、使用以及保存等議題,如何運用五大資訊科技技術趨勢重新塑造文件管理流程,是2012年11/12 月KM World 所談論的重點。

 
趨勢1: 文件管理轉移由資訊統籌 – Records management shifts to information governance.
 
文件管理人員須配合母機構所具有的企業資訊架構並因應資訊技術發展而採行更為敏捷性的標準。重新開發而投入的資訊成本母機構在專業與成本的考量下,可以考慮引用資訊套裝產品以管理文件整套生命週期。
 
原本左下圖傳統紙本記錄的生命週期由收集 詮釋 保存 檢索與傳遞,因應記錄形式的改變而修正為右下圖數位記錄的生命週期。
   

在記錄管理的流程中,每一步驟都要納入保存與典藏的思維。當然,管理紀錄是為了配合組織使命而進行的組織內知識管理的目的。
資訊技術與文件管理人員的專業是相輔相成的。
 
趨勢2 : 雲端與社群平台使檔案與公告聲明無法發揮應有的作用 – Cloud and social platforms render ‘file and declare” ineffective.
 
雲端服務市場帶來資訊應用的新思維,在文件管理專業人員思考的議題為如何轉換傳統管理工具並思考母機構現有之資訊架構與考量資訊安全議題之前提下可配合支援端服務模式。文章中文件管理專業人員需要注意以下幾點:
 
傳統記錄管理的工具無法因應雲端的需求 (Traditional records management tools are slow to make the leap to the cloud.)  應用更積極的態度思考雲端儲存與軟體即服務(SaaS) 的可能。
文件管理專家對雲端與社群平台仍抱持謹慎之態度(Records and compliance managers remain wary of cloud and social platforms). 在資訊安全的多方考慮之下,方便性與保密性往往成為管理者面臨之兩難。
現有的文件管理系統缺乏數位保存存放的資訊(Current records management systems are already missing many forms of electronically stored information). 新興內容型態不斷的變化,採用的技術與標準因而變動的變化之下,如何全面與系統性的進行文件詮釋資料的組織與管理是文件管理人員面臨到的困難。
 
趨勢3 : 數位保存議題 – Digital preservation forces itself onto the governance agenda 
 
Trend #3: Digital preservation forces itself onto the governance agenda.
Digital records that have a long-term retention schedule are at risk when hardware devices, software applications and file formats decay or become obsolete. Research performed by archives institutions shows wide swings in the lifespan of common archive and long-term storage media. Software file format obsolescence is also a significant area of research for archives and academic institutions, now that many first-generation business and personal productivity tools are retired, and the inability to retrieve or view older digital records is becoming a reality. As organizations continue to evolve, the following issues have begun to arise:
Organizations are slowly waking up to digital preservation concerns. Migration, conversion and adoption of open standards are accepted approaches to solve the problem of accessibility over time. Those approaches, however, are not widely adopted at this time.
Decisions to retire older enterprise applications raise content preservation concerns. As organizations begin infrastructure renewal projects-particularly as new SaaS and cloud-based applications become viable alternatives to big footprint legacy systems-architects, IT and records professionals must assess the risk of losing information in those older systems. Decisions to maintain older systems in read-only mode, to migrate data into newer systems or to dispose of older systems all together must be made in accordance with business, legal and compliance needs.
Institutional memory risks relegation to the digital dark ages sooner rather than later. Organizations are already discovering that digital information from the latter part of the 20th century is unreadable or inaccessible due to hardware obsolescence, disk/tape decay and software format loss. Even large, stable vendors such as Microsoft appear to have neglected to preserve source code for file formats and specifications for older products like PowerPoint 4.0.
 
趨勢4: 開放性標準與開放性來源改變源頭 – Open standards and open source change the sourcing landscape
 
The public sector, in particular, has begun to drive significant change in the software acquisition landscape by calling for deliberate adoption of open standards and open source. Governments are hedging against the potential loss of electronic information, software obsolescence and increased costs, as well as demanding more portable data. Between 2011 and 2012, several national governments published directives to help their IT, records and procurement managers to understand, investigate and select more open technology platforms.
Open standards help address preservation, accessibility and interoperability needs. Govern-ments in the United Kingdom, United States and Europe have taken proactive stances on using software systems and file formats based on open standards. Open standards relevant to records and information management professionals pertain to long-term digital preservation (such as ODF, PDF/A) interoperability across content management systems (Content Management Interoperability Standard, CMIS) and metadata (Dublin Core). An update to CMIS was completed in late 2012 and includes new support for record management capabilities such as holds and retention.
Open source helps reduce cost and minimize vendor and platform lock-in. Programs developed by governments around the world have raised the profile and acceptance of open source software. The U.K. government, in 2012, published a detailed open source procurement toolkit to aid IT and purchasing managers. The Australian government has released an open source toolkit to support digital preservation in archive institutions. The U.S. Department of Defense has published best practices for safe and sustainable adoption of open source. The U.S. directive is specific about its goal to have open source records management tools available to government agencies by the end of 2014.
 
趨勢 5: 自動分類已轉變為可實現與達成的功能 – Auto-categorization becomes viable and approachable.
 
Transactional, regulated and semi-structured content are ripe areas for automated capture, categorization and application of retention policies. Opportunities to use auto-classification technologies for routine, high-volume, predictable electronic content are increasing as technology matures, more vendors provide integrated offerings and use cases are identified. Electronic information that uses a consistent structure and embedded metadata, or includes predictable patternsof numbers or text lends itself to content analytics, entity extraction and categorization tools for ingestion and application of retention, disposition and security or privacy access controls.
Auto-classification bridges compliance needs and business priorities. High-volume, transactional information is a pain point when storage costs escalate and discovery requests are made. Capture, categorization and retention scheduling are records functions that directly serve corporate goals to reduce costs, streamline customer service and increase digitization of processes. Consistent organization creates a foundation upon which to base content analytics and predictive technology use. Consistent disposal of obsolete information reduces the need for more storage resources, facilitates faster retrieval of data and lowers the cost of e-discovery.
Big content is as important as big data and requires coherent governance. Big data gets a lot of hype, but organizations must also cope with information stored in semi-structured or unstructured forms. Tabular data often sits unnoticed and unanalyzed in files created by individuals or small teams. E-mail, spreadsheets and ad hoc databases are used for critical business decisions and often sit under the radar of compliance or audit managers on file shares, collaboration sites or personal computers. Seventy percent of businesses use spreadsheets for critical business decisions, but fewer than 34 percent apply governance or controls to them.
Technology enforces and automates defensible approaches to disposition. Organizations that demonstrate consistent and predictable approaches to information handling, including its final deletion, are more successful when e-discovery orders compel extensive search, retrieval, review and production activities. Automation of routine processes, including scheduled disposal, lends weight to retention programs when challenged by legal counsel or auditors. Auto-classification tools ensure that retention and disposition rules are applied within specific parameters and are supported by documented policy rationale and citations.
 
 
資料來源:
1. 5 trends are reshaping records management. http://www.kmworld.com/Articles/Editorial/Features/5-trends-are-reshaping-records-management-92683.aspx 
2. Peled, Ido (2011)  Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger .
 

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